Monthly Archives: April 2010

yakov isidorovich ‘y perelman’ – physics can be fun

This book published in 1913 – ‘Physics can be Fun’ – is truly a classic. I recommend it heartily to anyone (and everyone) who is fortunate enough to have a passing knowledge of English – well, that’s how I recommended it to myself in the first place! In my humble opinion, no home is complete without this book on its bookshelves. Really.

I am of the opinion that, if one really goes through the book, it would be next to impossible NOT to appreciate the wonderful world around us. Oh the pure joy! ‘Physics can be fun’ is eminently readable, sprinkled with great insights & cutesy diagrams and is a fantastic work of translation (from the Russsian original).

However, I  note that these are the stellar times of the gag reflexes – sometimes even from otherwise well accomplished people! You enthusiasitically start talking about some delightful aspect of math or literature or film or science or music or whatever, or even cooking for that matter – and you can literally (and immediately) see the eyes of your acquaintances glazing over, bulging in disbelief, as they sincerely feel that ‘I can’t do / understand it’ all the time. They tell themselves forever that they are not good at this, not good at that, they are not made to understant these things, I am like this only etc etc and so very happily settle for Aamir Khan films mediocrity! How sad… What a waste of human potential!

But, I would say that, without fail, most of the children that I have been fortunate to interact with, are always enthusiastic about learning; there have been a few exceptions – these are the cases of  some children, hapless ones at that, who suffer from:

  • the parents  who excruciatingly dote over them endlessly  (they belong to the obnoxious school of ‘helicopter parenting’) or
  • the parents who ignore their own children altogether (this set of parents belong to the school of footfallers-in-glitzy-malls and/or inveterate socialites and/or ‘keychain partycipants’).

Children are the hope of our world. Well, most of them children, at least!

Okay.

A lovely english edition (among a zillion other great books!) of this Y Perelman text was published by the Mir publishers of Moscow  – but subsequent to the timely demise of USSR as an idea, I suppose only a few publishers such as Dover (of USA) have been bringing out very costly, heavily marked-up editions of some of the great USSR books. But ‘Physics can be fun’ was sadly not reprinted at all, not even by any major university press – or that’s what I thought, until recently.

So, being a great fan of the book (and such others) I took it upon myself to copy and distribute the bootlegs, to any promising youngster that I came across, whose mindscape was ripe and curious enough to allow for Perelmanish digressions – in the past couple of decades.

And so, it was with much delight and satisfaction that I could locate the book once again in Chennai hill station, during my recent trip ‘to enjoy the summer holidays’ – thanks to New Century Book House. (NCBH); cool!

Book particulars: ISBN 978 81 234 1521 4 | February 2009 | 432 pages

The address / contact info of the publisher:

41-B, Sidco Industrial Estate,
Ambattur,
Chennai – 600 098.
Phone No : 0091- 044 – 26258410, 26251968, 26359906
E-mail : ncbhbook@yahoo.co.in

The book has been produced nicely – and is priced at a meagre Rs. 250/- (some US $ 6 only!) – however it is nowhere near the great production value (and incredibly subsidized one at that!) of the Mir Publishers.

But, I don’t mean to complain that  the NCBH production is useless. It is nice too and is in a larger (therefore more readable) format than the original one. I must commend NCBH for their great service.

Amazon has a ‘not available’  link here: http://www.amazon.com/Physics-Can-Be-Fun-Perelman/dp/0828534594

I very earnestly request the readers of the blog (and anyone who is even remotely interested in life and is curious about how things happen to be the way they are) to please favourably consider buying this book. (I have bought two freshmint copies, of which one will be for the nammashaale library)

ps: scribd has a scanned copy of it; but, please buy the book so that the other great books of USSR (which have gone out of print) can see the light of the day too…

the right to education ‘act’ (2009)

Though the act is generally incorrectly abbreviated to RTE act, the correct phrase is: The Right of Children to Free And Compulsory Education Act, 2009. It should probably be called ‘Right to Elementary Education act,’ say REE, by us – which is at least closer to the content of the act… However, I would use the incorrect, but unfortunately a  popular abbreviation – RTE act! Sorry.

Some of my friends and I have been having some tentative discussions & have been jotting down personal notes on the subject and were circulating them ‘privately’ – that is, comprising among others,  some of our opinions, readings, misreadings, gross-misunderstandings etc etc on the RTE act.

I am planning to share some of them, in the hope that the semiformed notes would probably be useful to folks out there on the web, seeking some jaundiced information on the RTE act. (of course, the jottings will be less rabid, expunged,  and therefore slightly more readable than the original febrile discussions, I hope);  so, these are my notes and further down, my questions too! (most of this text is some weeks old – and there has been at least one formal meeting that I have since attended, thanks to Sri Ramdas and Srimathi Rama of Viswabharati Vidyodaya Trust – and so, I have become aware of more interesting and relevant points of view about the RTE act since when I first wrote the notes, but more on this in later posts!)

My notes:

One should FIRST & foremost, go through the Central gazette publication of the act, in detail. It is available off the Indian Government website – The Department of School Education and Literacy – The Right of Children to Free And Compulsory Education Act, 2009.

Next, one should go through the  notification of the act: Notification of Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act 2002 and Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act, 2009. This merely gives the ‘effective date’ but it is important from a legal perspective.

The third reference document would be:  Model Rules Under the Right Of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act, 2009.

It is also important that the notifications of the state governments are yet to happen. So, when I write ‘notification,’  it is about the (impending) State notifications, rather than the Central one.

Now,  it is very important at this juncture, to remember what  Mark Twain said once: “First get your facts; then you can distort them at your leisure.

The RTE act  sure reads very draconian or very egalitarian depending on where one comes from. But the fact is that it is both. Very good intentions are in the right place (Kapil Sibal and all that – though he came in quite late to the scene & to the real run-up to the passing of the bill) – nobody could question this act done in good faith, but the implementation is the one that one will have to wait for (and/or take afirmative action) and then see… Anyway, the basic features of the act (my reading) are:

  • the word ‘education’ has not been defined at all – which in my opinion is puzzling
  • free and compulsory education for children between 6 and 14
  • nothing to do with the primary or higher education
  • no entry or exit criteria for children apart from age
  • mandatory provision to provide 25% reservation for disadvantaged children in private schools
  • prohibits unrecognized schools from practice, and makes provisions for no donation or capitation fees and no interview of the child or parent for admission
  • no child shall be held back, expelled, or required to pass a board examination until the completion of elementary education
  • provision for special training of school drop-outs, to bring them up to par with students of the same age
  • the Right to Education of persons with disabilities until 18 years of age has also been made a fundamental right
  • provides for the establishment of the National Commission for Protection of Child Rights, and State Commissions for supervising proper implementation of the act, looking after complaints and protection of Child Rights
  • other provisions regarding improvement of school infrastructure, teacher-student ratio, hours of duty, working days in an year, class size etc etc
  • funding estimates: US$38.2 billion or Rs 1,71,000 crores – would be required in the next five years – but there is already a shortfall of Rs.19,000 crores off the allocated Rs.34,000 crores even for the first year!
  • funding for implementing the act would be shared in the ratio of 65:35 between the Central Government and the states, and a ratio of 90:10 for the north-eastern states; of course, the state of J&K is an exception, as usual!
  • formation of a school management committee (75% of this will be parents!) involving parents, local elected representatives etc, in every school, with significant powers
  • all schools have to be recognized by the appropriate authorities
  • 3 years timeframe for the implementation; with some provisions, it is 5 years
  • fine of Rs 1.00 lakh for contravention – with a probable Rs 10k perday for repeated contraventions!

Sheesh! It does look like a war declaration, at one level! A war declaration, NOT because of the draconian provisions which are well intentioned and aimed at curbing the growth of ‘factory’ schools with no soul or values, but because the act does not acknowledge the diverse & critical ground realities!

This could have happened, may be because certain positive facets of this beast called ‘education’ that are being adddressed by well meaning folks and organizations, are not taken cognizance of at all, by the legislative bodies or by our bureaucracy.

Perhaps this happened because, these well meaning schools, folks and philosophies are in a minority. Minority not in terms of narrow religious denominations or sects, or else, their voice would have been heard purely because of the expediencies of political mobilization and carving out of constituencies.

May be these folks did not use the available spaces for the articulation of their points of view, during the run-up to the passage of the bill.

Or, possibly these maverick educationalists were actually busy doing their work, minding their own businesses, when the legislative actions simply whizzed past them.

Or may be perhaps, these groups did not have a reasonably sufficient mindshare of the nation, given the fact that our nation is caught between the asinine IPL cricket matches and the abysmal Aamir Khan starrers, and is rather busy getting entertained.

Whatever be the reason, there are possibilities for much collateral damage due to the current provisos of the RTE act.

My questions:

  1. Without defining the term called ‘education’  in the RTE act, how can it be made meaningful? Or is there a possibility to interpret education creatively and realistically because of this very reason,  so that grievances of genuinely affected constituencies be addressed pronto?
  2. How come no one is (mis)quoting the freedom of religion, in respect of ‘education’? I would say that my particular religion does not allow me to go to these HighYieldVariety schools as per the diktats of the act. So, can I say that my religion would allow me to go only to these schools with  ‘alternative’ ideas? Can we say that the State cannot interfere in this aspect of our lives??
  3. If one reads the preamble to our Indian constitution: “WE, THE PEOPLE OF INDIA, having solemnly resolved to constitute India into a SOVEREIGN SOCIALIST SECULAR DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC and to secure to all its citizens: JUSTICE, social, economic and political; LIBERTY of thought, expression, belief, faith and worship; EQUALITY of status and of opportunity; and to promote among them all FRATERNITY assuring the dignity of the individual and the unity and integrity of the Nation; IN OUR CONSTITUENT ASSEMBLY this twenty-sixth day of November, 1949, do HERE BY ADOPT, ENACT AND GIVE TO OURSELVES THIS CONSTITUTION.” Just read the brown text again.  How come no allowance at all has been made for small community establishments, pursuing various educational philosophies and thoughts? What about the basic diversity – especially when we talk about ‘unity in diversity’ and all that?? What about ‘not profit making’ schools?
  4. Is the act going to create an yet another failed ‘green revolution’ archetype? That Indian apparatchiks could dream up a well intentioned idea (yet again) but thoroughly botch up on the implementation/fineprint aspects, thereby killing ALL the vibrant diversity and memetic pools?
  5. How is the new position reconciled with the existence of NIOS – National Institute of Open Schooling? How can one arm of the government strangle the other (a much older and wiser arm at that) and the basic ideas that basically gave rise to the wiser arm?
  6. How are the homeschoolers (not that they are even in a microscopic minority – in addition, many of them are utterly clueless, but I would say that they HAVE their right to be clueless too, like the rest of us!) – I am quite intrigued! What about the parents’ rights?? (In my Tamilnadu, there is a very grave law against parents who are not sending their children to school, think it has been around for a while – but I don’t know of even a single case of punishment. I recall that there was not even a single FIR that was filed in this context, even when the ‘law’ was a freshmint one!)
  7. Elementary and Secondary Education are EXCLUSIVELY State Subjects in the Constitution of India (not even in the concurrent list) and the Central Government can not compel the State Governments to follow the former’s diktats. So, can we bank on the karnataka BJP government to help combat the well-intentioned offtangentness on part of the central government of Congress and its cohorts (just to bring in the dirty politics angle) – at least while forming its own rules, the States do have the power of creative interpretation.
  8. Where is the money? Many state governments are already in the red! The Central Government, could it help? May be the latter will cheerfully establish more factories for printing currency??
  9. As it is, there are some 12 lakhs India-wide vacancies that are yet to be filled in our Government schools! How can one even begin the address this…
  10. The Central Government itself has set up quite a few types/genres of elite schools – such as navodaya vidyalayas, thereby depriving the normal, other government schools of due funding… How is this gap ever going to be bridged? How come this RTE act is not applicable to the Central Government’s such creations?
  11. The nation, even 60 years after Bapuji’s death, has not even understood the deep schism that exists between the ‘equality of opportunity’ and ‘equality of status’ – this is really sad. Without this basic cognition, we simply go ahead and want to make cataclysmic changes! Tell me, as to how will a child from a disadvanged background, go to a court of law for enforcing its fundamental right? How can the poor child (or its parents)  engage the likes of Ram Jethmalanis to ensure the enforcement of their rights, say in the Supreme Court? Would there be a followup “Right to Engage Ram Jethmalanis” too?
  12. I feel that the Central Government should provide for at least safe and clean drinking water in all the schools first; may be usable toilets can follow later. Then, it can take up all the other ‘developmental’ issues.
  13. How can the Indian Central Government ensure that the funds that are supposedly allocated by it, will be used by corrupt and completely spoilt, mercenary State governments (like that of say, Muthuvel Karunanidhi’s Tamil Nadu) for the purposes of implementing the act? What if the said ‘governments’ use the fiund to give away free Sony PSPs to all the children? Or to give away free Fridges to all households? Or better still, what if they embezzle the whole damned fund? After all,  my fellow Tamilian friend Srimaan Karunanidhi,  has been accused by the venerated judges (of impeccable credentials and integrity) of having the ability to practise Scientific Corruption, as early as three decades back! So, the likes of  Srimaan Karunanidhi would have only become better at their acts, the dilegent students of malfeasance that they have been, for all their lives! The Central Government has lamented that the state of Tamil Nadu  for example, has not been conducting any internal audit from the year 2006 – with respect to the expenditures on education! (but am digressing)

The basic ideas of the act are closer to my heart too – but when there are so many holes, the funds mobilization is grossly inadequate, where do I even begin to interpret the act…

On the contary, may be there is hope. May be all the holes and inadequacies in the RTE act, can be rightfully and genuinely addressed. In spite of my fears to the contary, there are many, very many people who will do the right things, at the right time.

May be not all is lost. We survive on hope.

(more later…)

mir mukhtiar ali, folk singer from bikaner

Thanks to the incredible folks at the Chitra Kala Parishat, Bangalore and the Information Department, Government of Karnataka – we were able to go to a ‘sufi music concert’ of the rustic gent from Rajasthan – the preserver of the sufiana qualam from the Indo-Pakistan border.

His incredible voice (easily ranging beyond 3 octaves)  along with a deep, wide repertoire (drawn from all over – amir khusro, mirabhai, kabir (of course, of course),  bulleh shah, hazarat shah bahu…) held all of us spellbound!

The accompaniments were a sarangi  (an inspired performance – begging, pleading, resounding, cajoling and at times authoritarian – sometimes leading, sometimes following, oh the soothing melancholy), tabla, dholak and a harmonium. Oh what a team! The energy and the stamina of the tablaichi and the dholak player were unbelievable.

Now, this is what fills me with hope – that, young (& prominent) musicians  these days not only have a well trained voice, but also a wide and deep repertoire – spanning genres, schools, thoughts… What a far cry from the rest of the professional world (especially the IT surreal world), where the abysmal & overpaid shallowness is the order of the day! I suppose, at some point of time in the future,  the IT professionals [sic], would indeed become professionals… Let me hope!

I should not lament. It was a very satisfying day. I would say that our time was well invested in the activity.

May the tribe of these delightful professionals such as Sri Ali,  increase! Lovely.

aseptic homes: tv, but no books!

You know what I mean?

You go to his/her place, after getting quite a few repeated invitations – you live (because you chose not to die in the city) in the outskirts of Bangalore, um,  just beyond the hemline to be precise, and so going anyplace means a loooooong drive and lots of initiative. Your children would also chide you for spending so much fuel and for being so environment-unfriendly, if you choose to go driving all the way. In any case, the family knows how the trip is likely to turn out, how are you going to react etc etc, given their prior experience. They say it so many words. Oh the exacerbation

The hosting couple also happen to be members of that horrendous phylum (0f the kingdom of Idioticus Indicus) called NRIs, who call themselves, rather incorrectly – ‘ex-pats.’ Your prior experience in dealing with the indifferent members of this phylum, has not always been interesting… You anyway have way too many of them in your extended family and otherwise. Oh the aggravation

But, this couple have children, make reasonable noises about life, there have been a few email interchanges, their children go to some ‘alternative’ school – and you think that, with any luck, at least your kids can have a nice time. So you set aside all other sundry work, including the preparation for the next session at school etc and leave.

The roads have been dug up recently and so finding isoPotholes ** and isoLedges along which to dexterously position the tires of your aged jalopy, becomes a challenge – no complaints, it is fun, it makes you feel alert – at least that’s what you tell yourself. You are a skilled driver proud of your sidewinding, slithering skills and the ability to retain your cool in an Ant Colony Optimization problem – I mean the traffic snarls, the heat, the sweat, the swears, the fellow drivers – the works! grrr…

Finally, you land there at the host’s multistoreyed complex (aptly named some ‘Manthri Prestige PressureCookerVille Chrysanthemum TopazToccata Garden’) and the gruff security guards at the literally sand-bagged entrance, demand to see your identity, phone number (Oh! you don’t have a cell phone? From which planet are you?),  and already you have started sweating, thinking how on earth you forgot to bring your passport (oh God, is it even valid?) and ohmygod, may be you should have gotten a visa from your host, duly countersigned by the Chief of the Internal Security for the apartment complex. Your spouse realizes that you are dazed and offers to step in, but your silly machoness does not permit that…

At the security office, the closed circuit TV cameras whirr around and zoom in and look at you quizzically and somewhat lazily through their monocled eyes and suddenly you wonder whether your fly zipper is up. You turn away from the camera to do a quick check, and the security guards instinctively stiffen… One would think there were some hep political bigwigs/VIPs living in those apartments, but you know for sure that, after all, there are only white collar slaves and lazy bozos working for MNCs ‘live’ there in that complex…

The guards finally ring up your host’s house and ask whether they are expecting us – but only the servant-maid is there, saying “memsahib gone out.” Not only that, “Yejamaan busy” and “bachchon doing homework.” So “please thodi dher ke baad try keejiye” and all that… aha!

You curse your goodluck with the choicest of epithets that you never had a chance to utter in the past couple of decades, and hope  your children did not hear your vile swearing;  and week-kneed that you are, you go to the nearest phonebooth and call the memsahib’s cellphone number. Some smashhit ringtone with some monstrous tune of A R Rahman – keeps you agitated. “Oh sorry. We were expecting you, but thought I could do a quick weight reduction at the nearby Vandal Lutheran Chic Centre. You see, today was the last day for an exciting ‘first time in the entire history of the world’ offer FatChance – sell 2 Kgs at VLCC, buy 3 kgs at home viewing ‘Desparete Housewives’ and eating chips. Lovely. Nice of you to have come. Will be there rightaway.”

So, you are stranded at the entrance with a sullen spouse and puzzled children and look for some one else’s fingernails to bite, as your’s are already over –  it has been a nailbiting finish for the past 30 minutes.

And so, finally, the ‘rightaway’ happens after half-an-hour more and the illustrious ma’am (less 2 kgs, hopefully) arrives, and you get in to the ghetto. Sorry, I should say ‘walled community.’

At their home, you are surprised to find the husband plonking himself down in front of TV, watching a FormulaOne race, but supposedly in the midst of a serious ‘office conference call’ – The laptop (sorry, this was a paunchtop), is on and the latest cricket score of the IPL madness keeps wafting in. Five filament lamps are on, there is so much light and heat – and  hence two fans are working overtime – luckily, the air conditioner is not on, thank God for small mercies… The cell phone chimes, the blackberry announces the arrival of some new email. You feel jealous. You wonder, how on earth could a person juggle between so many things and be productive.  You wonder whether you miss your corporate life. Nor really. You only miss the steadily & obscenely climbing bank balance.

The lady is sweet otherwise, and the steady stream of excellent junk makes you break all the rules that you have imposed on your children. You would like your children to be ‘engaged’ in some activity or the other, so that you can slyly gorge on the junk. But you realize that it is not possible.

The children of the host are busy with their video games. Like in many families, the ‘bringing up’ of the host’s children too, apparently seems to have been outsourced to the videogames, TV and the ayaahs. Your children are bored. You start feeling guilty.

Some elderly people emerge from the bowels of the house (perhaps, either in-laws or outlaws of the couple) and want to discuss the Tamilnadu politics with you. You are sick and tired of Sriman Karunanidhi (and his gazillion families, nephews and the incredibly ‘scientific’ corruption) and do not want to talk about any scum or scam. The elders persist.  You ask whether they voted in the recent elections. They say that at the time of elections, they were in the ‘States!’  &?^*%$# You ask them whether they were in the neighbouring AndhraPradesh State during elections? They say NO and tell you that they were akchooly in YouYes. Heh! You persist and ask as to why they did not consider voting through the postal ballot system. They are truly puzzled.

Here they are, trying to make polite conversation about solving the problems of the world (‘mind you, we have even been to States’) and there you are, who is only interested in some damn voting… You want to rudely say that they don’t have any moral right to complain about anything, but keep quiet. The reason: your spouse is looking at you rather coldly. You know the consequences. You promptly shut up.

Eventually, the husband finishes off all his ‘tasks,’ and tries to chat with you – the usual ones about traffic, great spiritualism, crass materialism, yoga, schooling, ecology, diversity, sustainability, energy conservation, ‘going green’ etc etc. Your eyes glaze over. You ask him whether he has any idea about how his apartment complex gets its water supply and what happens to their sewage water. The guy vaguely says ‘bore well‘ (at this point, you want to tell him that you didn’t ask for his skill set) and ‘I don’t know’ respectively. You are mighty peeved. What a cognitive dissonance! You desperately want some distraction from this endless drivel.

You wonder where the books are. They are not there at all. The host’s family does not have any use for them, obviously.  Not even a telephone directory! Nothing.  You realize that the overall attitude of this family is: when our Sony Bravia or some darn plasma TV is there, what else would one need to be informed, entertained & educated? Sheesh…

You are angry, your children distraught, the spouse caught in ‘the deer in the headlight’ syndrome. The hosts are happily doing whatever they would do, even otherwise. They think your family is having a great time. You tell yourself: Never ascribe to malice, that which can be sufficiently explained by stupidity. You  remember having read this quote, in some USENET chatter a couple of decades back. How perceptive, you wonder and chuckle… The hosts look at you, rather amused and understanding.

After, what looks like a couple of years, you come back home, cursing everything and anything, all the way. And, as soon as you get in, you spread a hundred books in the ‘hall’ and plonk down in the middle of them, lie down and start browsing your favourites. An obsessive-compulsive disorder, really. What a happy escape! You eventually calm down.

You look around – the rest of the family has also calmed down, thanks to books. Nice ones at that.

You know that you don’t socialize much, and in some cases where you must absolutely visit someone, you tend to hum and haw, weigh various pros and cons and finally give-in, but only in a few cases. You obviously don’t learn lessons. You should NOT give in at all. But you are a mutt-head (no, not like those lustrous ‘Nithyananda Paramahamsa types, sadly no universal love is possible in times of AIDS). You have to learn. Sorry to remind you of this.

Yes. You can never understand homes without books. You are not asking for much – the books could even be borrowed or leased or stolen or whatever. Dammit, it does not cost much to have a few books, especially when the aseptic homes spend large sums of money on all kinds of frivolous and obscene stuff!

But, you don’t want to even try to understand folks who not only have no books, but instead have wide screen / plasma / LCD / whatever TV screens that stare at you in the living room. Sometimes, you feel the power of these dumb boxes, even when they are switched off; you shudder.

You realize that many such folks have only the following at the places, where they pretend to live:

  • Lounge room – Entertainment center (TV, DVD player, home theatre etc)
  • Cafeteria (um, kitchen, gaudy dining tables, glittering crockery)
  • Impeccably tiled toilets
  • Bed rooms (master and a couple of slaves)
  • Gadgets everywhere – including US style fridges, washing machines and allied monstrosities
  • Some children (purely because of biological accidents, you suppose)
  • Some in-laws or outlaws (that is, when they are not in ‘States’)

They don’t live in homes, you realize to your horror.

You resolve to spend the time that would be spent on such terribly underwhelming visits – on reading and rereading the books that have left indelible mark in you. You do it rather religiously. Your would-have-been hosts would not understand, it is fine. You build-up a reputation for being ‘unsociable’ and an ‘unfriendly’ person, the I-Me-Myself guy – that stereotyping is  great, you realize! It gives you so much leeway. You happily realize that you have saved (and will continue to save) on an incredible resource – time!.

Morals of the story:

  • Good ‘forward looking’ noises and emails maketh not a ‘home.’
  • At least, when there is a will, there is some inheritance. However, when there is a TV, there is NO way.
  • Avoid social visits prompted by reasons such as birth day parties, death day mournings, your children going to the same school etc…
  • But, don’t ever go for random get-togethers – just to ‘chill out’ or ‘hang around’ or for ‘getting to know more about others’ – it is simply not worth it.

ps: Yeah.  know that just because a home does not have any book(s) does not translate to it not being a home. There could be reasons of economics. Or, the folks could be actually doers so they do not need to brandish books to prove their intellectuality. But these kinds of folks are in a microscopic minority.

** : Actually, the roads in your Hennur – Bagalur area are very good now – a rolemodel for proper macadamization, but that is not going to encourage you to venture out to aseptic homes, sorry.